University of Illinois

LCME

Liaison Committee on Medical Education

Goals and Objectives

M2 Goals and Objectives
Pharmacology

COURSE NAME
       
        Pharmacology


GOALS/OBJECTIVES      

    Course Overview

    Molecular Basis of Drug Action

      1. The student shall be able to describe specificity of drug action, bonds, receptor types and effector mechanisms.
      2. The student shall be able to state theories of drug action and discuss theoretical LDR curves.
      3. The student shall understand the differences between different kinds of drug agonists and antagonists, and be able to describe the concepts of drug affinity, efficacy, and desensitization.

    Pharmacokinetics

      1. The student shall recognize methods of absorption of drugs in regards to membrane structure, membrane transport, and routes of administration.
      2. The student shall describe distribution of drugs with consideration of volume of distribution, plasma proteins, distribution in the central nervous system, and passge across the placenta.
      3. The student shall be familiar with the routes of drug excretion and drug clearance.
      4. The student shall be able to note various types of drug metabolism, including the P450 system.
      5. The student shall describe the time course of drug action including kinetics of elimination, plateau principle, and maintenance and loading doses.
      6. Normal & Abnormal Responses to Drugs

    Toxicity and Measurement of Drug Response

      1. The student shall be able to note log-dose response relationships in graded responses, such as a normal distribution, and the measurement of potency and safety of drugs.
      2. The student shall be able to describe various aspects of drug development including animal and clinical trials that are used to determine toxicity and drug responses.
      3. Allergic and Idiosyncratic Responses
        1. The student shall be able to describe all of the five types of allergic responses and give examples of each.
        2. The student shall be able to appreciate idiosyncratic responses based upon drugs susceptible to impaired metabolism, changes in sensitivity, and novel effects.

    POPS Clinical Problem

      1. The student shall distinguish graded and quantal dose or concentration‑response curves., and recognize individual variability as the basis of quantal curves.
      2. The student shall  designate a "desired therapeutic concentration" from such curves.
      3. The student shall distinguish first‑order and saturation kinetics.
      4. The student shall compare and contrast a drug's half‑life (t1/2), elimination rate constant (kel), apparent volume of distribution (Vd), and clearance (Cl) in terms of the first –order one‑compartment model. Use those quantities to compute loading and maintenance dosages to generate initial (CO) and steady‑state (Css) drug plasma concentrations, respectively.
      5. The student shall apply the plateau principle to compute concentrations of drug in plasma during approach to plateau or steady‑state.
      6. The student shall define bioavailability, and state the consequences of slow or delayed absorption of a drug on peak and trough concentrations during a dosing interval.

    Cancer Chemotherapy I

      1. Neoplastic Agents:
        1. The student shall be able to recognize the drug names, chemistry and mechanism of actions, major toxicities and major therapeutic effects for the following classes: Alkylating agents, Platinum analogues, Folic Acid analogues, Pyrimidine Analogues, Purine analogues, Microtubule Inhibitors, Epipodophyllotoxins, Camptothecins, anthracyclines, bleomycins, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Proteosome Inhibitors, differentiation modulators, miscellaneous agents, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators and growth factors, and hormonal agents.

    Cancer Chemotherapy II

      1. Immunomodulators:
        1. The student shall be able to recognize the drug names, chemistry and mechanism of actions, pharmacokinetics, major toxicities and major therapeutic effects for the following classes: calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative and antimetabolic agents, antibodies, and immunostimulants
      1. Chemical Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
        1. The student shall be able to recognize different forms of mutagenesis and drug examples that cause each type of mutagenesis.
        2. The student shall understand the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
        3. The student shall be able to describe the principle and common characteristics of carcinogens, carcinogenic hazards and screening for carcinogens.

    Anti-viral Drugs

      1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and mechanism of action, major toxic and therapeutic effects of anti-influenza drugs.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and mechanism of action, major toxic and therapeutic effects of antiherpes drugs.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and mechanism of action, major toxic and therapeutic effects of anti-hepatitis drugs.
      4. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and mechanism of action, major toxic and therapeutic effects of anti-HIV drugs.

    POPS Clinical Problem Anticancer Drugs       

      1. The student shall list the objectives of the major chemotherapy phases for ALL in children.
      2. The student shall list the drugs used in the different phases of treatment and know their mechanism of action.
      3. The student shall list the chief toxicities associated with the uses of these drugs and how to overcome these toxicities.
      4. The student shall describe the long-term toxicities associated with cancer chemotherapy.
      5. The student shall explain drug resistance, the major mechanism causing it, and how to prevent or deal with it when it occurs.
      6. The student shall explain the rationale for combination chemotherapy and what types of drugs should be used in combination.
      7. The student shall understand the importance of pharmacological sanctuaries in cancer chemotherapy.
      8. The student shall understand when and why antibiotics are used during cancer chemotherapy and know what types of antibiotics are used.
      9. The student shall explain the rationale for bone marrow transplantation and some of the problems associated with its uses

    Cholinergic drugs

      1. The student shall understand the structure, mechanism of action, systemic effects, side effects and contraindications of acetylcholine, methacholine, carbamycholine, bethanechol, and pilocarpine.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the general effects, pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic uses of various cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Anticholinergics and Anticholinesterases

      1. Antimuscarinic Drugs
        1. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, systemic effects, contraindications and toxicity, and therapeutic uses of atropine and drugs with similar actions.
      1. Ganglionic Stimulants and Blockers
        1. The student shall be able to describe the current concepts of ganglionic stimulating drugs including the major effects and toxicity of nicotine.
        2. The student shall be able to describe the current concepts of ganglionic blocking agents including major effects, side effects and other problems, and uses of these drugs.

    Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

      1. The student shall know the definition and characteristics of neuromuscular blockers.
      2. The student shall e able to describe the mechanism of action, effects on organ systems, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, cautions and drug interactions, uses, and methods for drug reversal for d-tubocurarine, gallamine, and cuare-like drugs.
      3. The student shall e able to describe the mechanism of action, effects on organ systems, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, cautions and drug interactions, uses, and methods for drug reversal for depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents like succinylcholine, decamethoniumdantrolene, baclofen, diazepam, and tizanidine.

    Adrenergic Agonists I

      1. The student shall understand the pathway of catecholamine synthesis and the subtypes of adrenergic receptors, what tissue they are present in, and their effects on the tissue.
      2. The student shall be able to list the major factors affecting the end result of administering sympathomimetic amines, and the factors that affect the rate of metabolism.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the systemic and organ effects, mechanism of action, therapeutic uses and side effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

    Adrenergic Agonists II

      1. The student shall recognize the mechanisms of action of adrenergic receptors.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the cardiovascular effects, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics side effects and precautions of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the cardiovascular effects, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics side effects and precautions of beta adrenergic agonists.
      4. The student shall be able to describe the cardiovascular effects, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics side effects and precautions of mixed adrenergic agonists.

    Alpha Blockers; Adrenergic Nerve Blockers

    The student shall recognize the differences between the various alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists including the drug’s preferences for alpha-1 or alpha-2 sites.

      1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism, organ effects, , side effects, onset and duration of action, uses and precautions for alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists.
      2. The student shall recognize the differences between the various beta-adrenoceptor antagonists including the drug’s preferences for beta-1 or beta-2 or alpha sites.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism, organ effects, , side effects, onset and duration of action, uses and precautions for beta-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs

      1. The student shall be able to understand the classification of receptor selectivity for beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the general effects of beta-blockers on the cardiovascular system, systemic effects, therapeutic uses, side effects and cautions.
      3. The student shall be able to demonstrate knowledge of the specific attributes of various beta receptor agonists

    Calcium Channel Blockers

    The student shall understand the role of calcium in muscle contractions, types of calcium channels, and the role of calcium in vascular tissue and cardiac muscle.

      1. The student shall demonstrate knowledge of the differing attributes and end organ effects of various calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine, amlodipine, andfelodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nimodipine, verapamil, diltiazem, and bepridil.

    Gene Therapy and Drugs for Gout

      1. The student shall be able to describe gene therapy with regards to methods of gene transfer, treatment goals, and disease targets.
      2. The student shall demonstrate knowledge of the chemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic uses and major toxicity of colchicines.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the role of non-steroidal antiinflamatory drugs in the treatment of gout.
      4. The student shall describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, therapeutic uses and major toxic effects of probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, and allopurinal.

    Renal Function: Diuretics I

    Renal Function: Diuretics II

      1. The student shall be able to review the normal renal tubular function or the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted portion, and collecting duct.
      2. The student shall be able to state the chemistry, mechanism of action, administration routes, side effects, duration of effect , therapeutic uses and preparations of osmotic diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics, and ADH antagonists.

    Antihypertensives I

      1. The student shall be able to describe the renin-angiotension system and the effects on body systems.
      2. The student shall know the different attributes of the angiotension enzyme convertor inhibitors and angiotension II receptor antagonists including the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions of vasodilators including hydralazine, minoxidil, diazoxide, and sodium nirtoprusside.
      4. The student shall be able to describe the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions of diuretics including thiadiazides, loop diuretics, and potassium-sparing diuretics.

    Antihypertensives II

      1. The student shall be able to describe the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions of various beta-adrenergic blocking agents.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions of methyl DOPA, clonidine, guanabenz, and guanfacine.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the drug actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, serious adverse reactions and precautions, treatment advantages, and drugs interactions of agents that interfere with alpha-adrenergic mechanism, calcium-channel blockers, and fenoldepam.
      4. The student shall be able to recognize drugs used for severe hypertension in emergencies, and the basic premise behind treatment of hypertension in various patient populations.

    Antipsychotic Drugs         

      1. The student shall be able to describe the role of dopamine in schizophrenia.
      2. The student shall be able to recognize the mechanism and sites of action of antipsychotic drugs.
      3. The student shall demonstrate the therapeutic effects, side effects, and drug interactions of chlorpromazine, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, clozapines, risperidone, quetapine, and olanzapine.
      4. The student shall be able to describe neurologic adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs.

    Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease

      1. The student shall be able to describe the underlying causes of Parkinson’s Disease.
      2. The student shall be able to understand the chemistry, mechanism of action, administration routes, side effects, duration of effect, therapeutic uses and preparations of L-DOPA, Carbidopa, amantidine, trihexphenidyl and benztropine, bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole and ropinirole, tolcapone, and selegiline.

    Antidepressants

      1. The student shall recognize the chemistry, effects and mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, side effects and toxic effects, and drug interactions of various generations of tricyclic antidepressants.
      2. The student shall recognize the chemistry, effects and mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, side effects and toxic effects, and drug interactions of serotonin uptake inhibitors.
      3. The student shall recognize the chemistry, effects and mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, side effects and toxic effects, and drug interactions of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and dopamine uptake inhibitors.
      4. The student shall appreciate the differences in cost for various anti-depressants.

    Lithium and Antianxiety - Sedative-hypnotic drugs

      1. Student shall be able to describe the mechanism, pharmacology, toxicity, therapeutic uses, side effects, and drug-drug interactions of lithium.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the importance, distribution, synthesis, mechanism of action, and breakdown of GABA.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, kinetics, mechanism of action, pharmacological effects, adverse effects, and uses of sedative-hypnotic medications such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, buspirone, and zolpidem.

    Antiseizure Drugs

      1. The student shall be able to show understanding of the pathophysiology and classification of seizures and the general principles behind antiepileptics and theire selection for specific seizure treatment.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism of actions, therapeutic uses, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and undesired effects of phenytoin-like medications, carbamazepine, phenobarbitol, primidone, gabapentin, lamotrigene, topiramate, tiagabine, valproic acid, ethosuximide, and benzodiazepams.

    Narcotic Analgesics

      1. The student shall be able to demonstrate knowledge of the source, structure, receptor interaction, mechanism of action, major pharmacologic actions, side effects, precautions and drug interactions of morphine and related drugs.
      2. The student shall be able to distinguish the unique attributes of meperidine and related drugs, methadone and related drugs, agonists-antagonists and partial agonists, and narcotic antagonists, and dextromethorphan.

    Drug of Abuse

      1. The student shall be able to differentiate between drug tolerance, dependence and addiction.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the physiological effects, tolerance and withdrawal patterns and medical uses of the following drug classes: opiods, barbituates and related sedatives, alcohol, psychedelics, psychomotor stimulants, and cannaboids

    Drugs in Heart Failure I

      1. The student shall understand the classifications of heart failure.
      2. The student shall be familiar with the mechanism of action, pharmocokinetics, systemic and electrophysiological effects, therapeutic uses, effects and treatments of toxicity, and drug interactions of cardiac glycosides.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the role in heart failure of calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, and diuretics.

    Drugs in Heart Failure II

      1. The student shall be familiar with the mechanism of action, pharmocokinetics, systemic and electrophysiological effects, therapeutic uses, effects and treatments of toxicity, and drug interactions of phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
      2. The student shall understand the role of and effects of beta-adrenergic agonists, alpha-adrenergic antagonists, vasodilators, ace inhibitors and angiotension II receptor blockers in the treatment of heart failure.

    Clinical Use of Inotropic Drugs

    Antianginal Drugs

      1. The student shall be able to describe the types of angina and pathophysiology of angina, and the major determinant of myocardial oxygen supply and demand.
      2. The student shall be able to demonstrate knowledge of the mechanism of action, pharmacological effects, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic uses, side effects, and tolerance of organic nitrates.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism of action, the effects and the therapeutic uses, side effects and contraindications of beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and combination therapy in the treatment of angina.

    Antiarrhythmic Drugs I

      1. The student shall be able to describe characteristics of normal cardiac fibers.
      2. The student shall be able to note proposed mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias
      3. The student shall be familiar with the different classifications for antiarrhythmic drugs and the stereotypical drugs in each class.

    Antiarrhythmic Drugs II

      1. The student shall know the mechanism of action, electrographic changes, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic uses, toxicity and side effects of group IA (quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide), group IB (lidocainephenytoin, tocainide, mexilitine) and group IC (flecainide, propafenone, ) antiarrhythmics.
      2. The student shall know the mechanism of action, electrographic changes, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic uses, toxicity and side effects of group II (propranolol, esmolol, acebutolol, etc) and group III (bretylium, amiodarone, sotalol,) antiarrhythmics.
      3. The student shall know the mechanism of action, electrographic changes, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic uses, toxicity and side effects of group 4 (calcium channel blockers, bepridil) and adenosine.

    Cardiovascular Review

    1. Anti-infective Drugs I
      1. Antimicrobial Drugs:
        1. The student shall appreciate the general concepts of mechanism of actions, choice of antibiotics, spectrum of activity and resistance, antibiotic combinations, antibiotic prophylaxis, pharmacokinetics and toxicity.
        2. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and therapeutic uses for sulfonamides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, penicillins, cephalosporins, other beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides and ketolides, clindamycin, spectinomycin, streptogramins, oxazolidinones, fosfomycin, bacitracin, metronidazole, fluoroquinolones, cyclic lipopeptides, polymyxins, and urinary tract antiseptics.
    2. Anti-infective Drugs II
      1. Anti-mycobacterial drugs
        1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and therapeutic uses for isoniazid, ethambutol, rifamycins, pyrazinamide, sulfones, and  clofazimine.
        2. The student shall become familiar with the treatment regime for tuberculosis and leprosy.
      1. Antifungal agents
        1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and therapeutic uses for amphotericin B, flucytosine, imidazoles and triazoles, echinocandins and griseofulvin.

    Anti-infective Drugs III

      1. Antiprotozoal Agents:
        1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and therapeutic uses for antimalarials including 4-aminoquinolines, 8- aminoquinolines, quinine/quinidine, proguanil, diaminpyrimidines, 4-quinoline-methanols, artemisinin, atovaquone,
        2. The student shall be familiar with the recommended treatment for malaria.

    Anti-infective Drugs IV

      1. Antihelmintics
        1. The student shall become familiar with the various types of nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes.
        2. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism of action, toxicity and therapeutic uses for mebednazole, albendazole, thiabendazole, pyrantel pamoate, diethylcarbamazine, praziquantel, and ivermectin.
        3. The student shall become familiar with common protozoa infections in the United States and be able to describe the mechanism of action, toxicity and therapeutic uses for nitroimidazoles, amebicides, and nitazoxanide.
        4. The student shall become familiar with major tropical  protozoa infections and their treatments.

    Drugs used in Hyperlipidemia          

      1. The student shall be able to describe lipid disposition and the resultant pathologies.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the effectiveness of diet changed to lower lipid levels.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, toxicity and therapeutic uses for cholesterol lowering drugs.
      4. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry, mechanism of action, toxicity and therapeutic uses for triglyceride lowering drugs.
      5. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry mechanism of action, toxicity and therapeutic uses for combination therapies of lipid lowering drugs.

    Antihistamines and Respiratory Drugs

      1. Histamine and Antihistamines
        1. The student shall describe the location and action of histamine and effects of histamine released in humans. 
        2. The student shall recognize the difference between first and second-generation antihistamines, including the therapeutic uses, and side effects.
        3. The student shall recognize some of the unique attributes among the drugs in the antihistamine class.
      1. Respiratory Drugs
        1. The student shall be able to state the mechanism of action, sites of action, therapeutic uses, routes of administration and adverse effects of ephedrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol, beta-2 agonists, and inhalation medications.
        2. The student shall be able to state the mechanism of action, sites of action, therapeutic uses, routes of administration and adverse effects of theophylline, glucocorticoids, disodium cromoglycate and nedocromil, ipatropium, zafirlukast, and zileuton,.
        3. The student shall be able to discuss the potential roles of prostaglandin E2, calcium channel blockers, and drugs used for cough.
        4. The student shall be able to state the mechanism of action, sites of action, therapeutic uses, routes of administration and adverse effects of xanthines.

    Anticoagulant and Antithrombic Drugs

      1. The student shall diagram the basic clotting mechanism.
      2. The student shall outline the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting systems.
      3. The student shall explain the role of platelets in initiating clotting and the rationale for pharmacological intervention.
      4. The student shall list the names of the clotting factors and their numeral designations.
      5. The student shall describe basic tests of clotting function, i.e., prothrombin time, bleeding time, partial thromboplastin time, whole blood clotting time, and indicate which tests are appropriate for laboratory control of anticoagulant therapy.
      6. The student shall explain the mechanism of anticoagulant action of heparin.
      7. The student shall explain the mechanism of anticoagulant action of coumarin derivatives.
      8. The student shall describe various means of reversing the action of the two main types of anticoagulants.
      9. The student shall list indications for the use of anticoagulants.
      10. The student shall identify the mechanisms of drug interaction involving the coumarin anticoagulants.

    Clinical Use of Anticoagulants

      1. The student shall be able to describe the challenges associated with the clinical use of anticoagulants.
      2. The student shall be able to discuss the potential for drug interactions with warafrin.
      3. The student shall be able to delineate which drug interactions are clinically significant.
      4. The student shall be able to describe “bridge therapy”.

    Prescription Writing

      1. The student shall be able to recognize and create prescriptions with all of the important elements included.
      2. The student shall describe the most common errors seen in prescription writing and offer ideas for prevention of these errors.
      3. The student shall know the conversion of units written on prescriptions.

    Drugs in the Anemias

    Prostaglandins and other Autocoids

    NSAIDS and other Antirheumatics

      1. The student shall recognize the chemistry, synthesis, systemic/organ effects, mechanism of activity, for prostaglandins.
      2. The student shall understand the role of COXII and the drugs that inhibit it.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the absorption, metabolism and excretion, systemic and organ specific effects and toxicity of salicylates, acetomenophen, proprionic acid derivatives, nonacetylated salicylates, acetic acid derivatives, and anthranilic acid derivatives.
      4. The student shall be able to describe the absorption, metabolism and excretion, systemic and organ specific effects and toxicity piroxican, etodolac, nabumetone, oxaprozin, COX II inhibitors, and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    General Anesthetics

      1. The student shall be able to describe the stages of general anesthesia, theories of action of anesthesia, and factors governing the approach to steady state.
      2. The student shall know the applications for specific anesthesia, the mechanism of action and end organ effects, the side effects, advantages and disadvantages for nitrous oxide, halothane, methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, droperidol-fentanyl, and ketamine, thiopental, etomidate, and
      3. The student shall recognize the role of various injectable (intravenous) anesthetics.

    Local Anesthetics

      1. The student shall be able to describe the pharmacokinetics, sites of action, neurons affected, mechanism of actions of local anesthetics.
      2. The student shall note the reactions of local anesthetics in solutions, as well as the unique attributes of various medications in the class.

    Gastrointestinal Drugs I

      1. Drugs Affecting GI Motility
        1. The student shall be able to recognize drugs and their mechanism of action for the following classes of GI drugs: laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, emetics, antiemetics, and antinausea medications.

    Gastrointestinal Drugs II

      1. Drugs used in Peptic Ulcer Disease
        1. The student shall describe the drugs and their mechanism of action of gastric antacids.
        2. The student shall describe the drugs and their mechanism of action of histamine and its antagonists, and note the unique characteristics of cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, and nizatidine.
        3. The student shall describe the drugs and their mechanism of action of mucosal protective agents, prostaglandins, proton-pump inhibitors, antispasmodic agents.
        4. The student should be able to describe the unique role of Helicobacter pylori in ulcers.

    Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemics; Pituitary

      1. The students shall be able to describe the chemistry and production, pharmacokinetics, physiological actions, therapeutic uses, toxicity or abnormal production of: Insulin, amylin analogs, incretins, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon and somatostatin.
      2. The student shall understand the relationship between hypothalamic and pituitary hormones.
      3. The student shall demonstrate knowledge on the chemistry and production, mechanism of action and physiological actions, major therapeutic uses, and toxicities for growth hormone, growth hormone antagonists, somatostatins, and prolactin.

    Gonadal and Uterine Drugs

      1. Reproductive endocrinology and pharmacology
        1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and physiological actions, side effects, therapeutic uses, and toxicities of the following: GnRH, GnRH agonists and antagonists, gonadotropins, antiestrogens, progestins, antiprogestins, androgens, antiandrogens, and phospdiesterase inhibitors.
      1. Pituitary Hormones
        1. The student shall understand the preparation, mechanism of action, and toxic effects of oral contraception.
      1. Adverse Drug Effects-Teratogenesis
        1. The student shall understand the five risk categories of teratogenes, and factors determining teratogenicity, and recognize drugs known as teratogens.
      1. Summary of Drugs for Migraine
        1. The student shall be able to describe current mechanism of action of the current medications used to treat migraine headaches and used for prophylaxis for migraine headaches.

    Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs; Calcium

      1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and physiological actions and toxicity of TSH, TRH and thyroid hormones.
      2.  The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and mechanism of actions, toxic effects, and therapeutic uses of ionic inhibitors, iodide, and radioactive iodine.
      3. The student shall be able to demonstrate knowledge of the chemistry and production, physiological actions, therapeutic uses, toxicity or abnormal production of parathyroid hormone, calcimimetics, Vitamin D, calcitonin, and biphosphates.
      4. The student shall recognize other pharmacological agents affecting calcium metabolism.

    Corticosteroids

      1. The student shall be able to describe the chemistry and physiological actions, therapeutic uses, and toxicity of ACTH, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal cortical inhibitors.

    Toxicology

      1. The student shall be able to describe the definitions, the types and the rating system for toxicities.
      2. The student shall be able to list the various treatments for toxicity.
      3. The student shall be able to describe the basic presentation and treatment of toxicities due to ethanol, carbon monoxide, aspirin, barbiturates, narcotics, benzodiazepines, acetaminophen, nitrites and nitrates, and cyanide.
      4. The student shall be able to the effects if the following exposures on the human body: vitamins and dietary supplements, hydrocarbon solvents, pesticides, herbicides, metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, iron, aluminum) and chelating agents

     

    1. Special Topics in Pharmacology
      1. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism, pharmacokinetics, effectiveness, side effects, contraindications, precautions, and drug interactions for erectile dysfunction medications such as sildenafil.
      2. The student shall be able to describe the mechanism, pharmacokinetics, effectiveness, side effects, contraindications, precautions, and drug interactions for acne medications such as tretinoin.
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