How to Fairly Compare Disease Frequencies Between Groups

Practice Questions

 

 


1. Mark each of the items below that are needed to calculate the directly age-adjusted mortality rate for Town X.

a. age-specific mortality rates for Town X
b. age-specific mortality rates for the standard population
c. the age distribution of the population of Town X
d. the age distribution of the standard population
e. the crude mortality rate for Town X
f. the crude mortality rate for the standard population

 

ANSWERS


2. Town A has a directly age-adjusted mortality rate of 15 deaths per 100,000 persons per year, where the non-institutionalized population of the United States is the standard population. Another way of saying this is that (choose one)

a. Town A had 15 deaths per 100,000 people last year.
b. Town A has the same age distribution as the non-institutionalized population of the United States.
c. The difference in mortality rates between the United States and Town A is not due to age.
d. Town A would have had a mortality rate of 15 deaths per 100,000 people per year if it had the same age-specific mortality rates as did the non-institutionalized population of the United States.
e. Town A would have had a mortality rate of 15 deaths per 100,000 people per year if it had the same age distribution as did the non-institutionalized population of the United States.

ANSWERS


3, The introduction of a screening test for the early detection of an untreatable disease would result in (choose one)

a. an apparent temporary increase in incidence and an apparent permanent increase in prevalence.
b. an apparent temporary decrease in incidence and an apparent permanent increase in prevalence.
c. an apparent temporary increase in incidence and an apparent permanent decrease in prevalence.
e. an apparent temporary decrease in incidence and an apparent permanent decrease in prevalence.
f. None of the above.

ANSWERS


4. Which of the following statistical descriptions is most informative about the relationship between a possible risk factor and a disease, when age may be acting as a confounder?

a. directly age-adjusted cumulative incidence rates for groups with and without the possible risk factor
b. standardized incidence ratios for groups with and without the possible risk factor
c. indirectly age-adjusted cumulative incidence rates for groups with and without the possible risk factor
d. age-specific cumulative incidence rates for groups with and without the possible risk factor
e. crude cumulative incidence rates for groups with and without the possible risk factor

ANSWERS


5. Calculation of proportionate mortality (numerator of the PMR) requires knowledge of which of the following about the disease in question?

a. total number of cases
b. total number of deaths
c. relative risk
d. attributable risk
e. prevalence
f. mean duration
g. incidence density
h. cumulative incidence
i. mortality rate

ANSWERS


6. PMR, Mortality Rate and CFR are calculated for disease X in factory workers. Describe situations in which:
  1. a low PMR may be accompanied by a high Mortality Rate and CFR;
  2. a low Mortality Rate may be accompanied by a high PMR;
  3. the CFR may increase with no accompanying change in either the Mortality Rate or PMR;
  4. the PMR may increase with no accompanying change in either the Mortality Rate or CFR;
  5. the Mortality Rate may increase with no accompanying change in either the PMR or CFR.